Trend Update: Burden of Damascus/Russia Adds Naval Forces to Mediterranean, October 2016

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Jeremiah 49:23 Concerning Damascus. “Hamath and Arpad are put to shame, for they have heard bad news; they are disheartened. There is anxiety by the sea, it cannot be calmed.

Who are Hamath and Arpad?

Hamath: The name means “fortress”. In the times of Jeremiah, Hamath was a city in valley of the Orontes River. Hamath was considered the capital of the northern kingdom of Syria. In the early 21st century, this is the city known as Hamah, Syria. It has a population of roughly 854,000 per 2009 census. It is the fourth largest city in Syria (Wikipedia).

Arpad: The name means “I will be spread out.” Per Ellicott’s Commentary, the modern day location is approximately 14 miles north of Aleppo, Syria. The city is effectively on the Turkey border. Scholars believe the modern day city is Tel Erfad, Syria (Barnes Notes on the Bible).

The Hebrew grammar says…

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